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Scientists explain ‘puppy dog eyes’
Dogs and wolves were exposed to humans for two minutes, during which the dogs raised their inner eyebrow more and at higher intensities than wolves.
Rapid evolution results in extra muscles around eyes 

Dogs have evolved to have new muscles around their eyes to help them communicate better with humans, new research shows.

Led by the University of Portsmouth, a team of UK and US experts compared the anatomy and behaviour of dogs and wolves.

Findings published in PNAS suggest that the facial musculature of both species are similar, except for above the eyes.

A small muscle, which is absent in the wolf, allows dogs to intensely raise their inner eyebrow. This inner eyebrow raising - dubbed the AU101 movement - triggers a nurturing response in humans. It makes the dog’s eyes appear larger, giving them a more ‘baby-like’ look, and is also similar to a human facial expression that indicates sadness.

During the study, dogs and wolves were exposed to humans for two minutes, during which the dogs raised their inner eyebrow more and at higher intensities than wolves. Previous research also found that dogs moved their eyebrows significantly more when humans were looking at them.

Lead anatomist Professor Anne Burrows, from Duquesne University, remarked that the evolution of these new muscles happened “remarkably fast”.  

It is thought this can be directly linked to dogs’ enhanced social interaction with humans. Researchers believe the muscles could be the result of humans’ unconscious preferences influencing selection during domestication.

The AU101 movement elicits a caring response from humans, giving dogs that move their eyebrows more a selective advantage over others, which would reinforce the trait for the future. 

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WellVet launches spring series of wellbeing talks

News Story 1
 A new spring series of wellbeing talks designed to tackle some of the issues faced in veterinary practices is launching on Saturday (27 February). Hosted by WellVet and Boehringer Ingelheim, the talks will focus on simple, practical tips to improve personal and team wellbeing.

Six 30-minute presentations will be hosted by leading coaching professionals, including Libby Kemkaran, Adrian Nelson-Pratt and occupational psychologist professor Elinor O'Connor. The events will be streamed live on the WellVet Facebook page and can be watched back at any time. For more information, visit 

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News Shorts
2021 NOAH Compendium now available

The 2021 edition of the NOAH Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines has been published.

Published annually by NOAH, this book is sent to every veterinary practice in the UK for free. The 2021 edition includes an even larger range of products than previous years.

Chief executive Dawn Howard stated that NOAH will shortly be launching a survey for practices on the Compendiums effectiveness.

She added: "Our survey will give users of the Compendium the opportunity to say how they think we can improve it to assist them in prescribing veterinary medicines and advising animal keepers on their use. We look forward to getting your views."